Eczema is an inflammatory common skin condition that causes itchiness and scaly patches. It leads to dry, itchy, and inflamed skin that can be red, scaly, and painful. While the exact cause of eczema is unknown, several different types of eczema have numerous causes and symptoms.
1. Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis is the most common type of eczema, and it often runs in families with a history of allergies or asthma. It typically appears in infants and young children; an ad can persist into adulthood. The symptoms of atopic dermatitis include dry, itchy, and red skin, especially on the face, neck, and hands. It can also cause crusting and oozing of the skin, which may lead to skin infections. Treatment for atopic dermatitis may include topical creams or ointments such as corticosteroids and oral medications to manage symptoms.
2. Contact Dermatitis
Contact dermatitis is an eczema type. It occurs due to exposure to a specific substance or allergen. It can be further classified into two types: irritant contact dermatitis, which happens because of contact with a harsh substance like soap or bleach, and allergic contact dermatitis, which may occur due to an allergic reaction to a substance like poison ivy or nickel. The symptoms of contact dermatitis include red, itchy, and inflamed skin that may blister or ooze. Treatment for contact dermatitis involves identifying and avoiding the offending substance and using topical creams or ointments to manage symptoms.c
3. Nummular Dermatitis
Nummular dermatitis, called discoid eczema, is characterized by round, coin-shaped patches of dry, itchy, and inflamed skin. It can appear anywhere on the body but is usually on the legs, arms, and torso. The exact cause of nummular dermatitis is unknown, but dry skin, irritants, or stress can trigger it. A Dermatologist in Rawalpindi may recommend topical creams or ointments to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.
4. Seborrheic Dermatitis
Seborrheic dermatitis is a type of eczema that affects the scalp, face, and other areas of the body with a high density of sebaceous glands. Red, itchy, and scaly skin that may occur alongside yellowish or white scales or flakes are signs of seborrheic dermatitis. Treatment for seborrheic dermatitis may include using medicated shampoos, topical creams, or antifungal medications. This condition can be irritating but not contagious and does not cause permanent hair loss.
5. Dyshidrotic Eczema
Eczema affects the hands and feet, also known as dyshidrotic eczema. It causes small, itchy blisters that may be filled with fluid. The cause of dyshidrotic eczema is unknown, but it may be related to stress or exposure to certain chemicals. Treatment for dyshidrotic eczema may include using topical creams or ointments, as well as avoiding exposure to irritants and allergens.
6. Stasis Dermatitis
Stasis dermatitis, also known as gravitational dermatitis, is a type of eczema that affects the lower legs of people with poor circulation. It typically presents as red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin, which can also develop into ulcers or blisters. Stasis dermatitis is more common in people with varicose veins, heart failure, or a history of blood clots. The exact cause of stasis dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to poor circulation and fluid buildup in the lower legs. Compression stockings to improve circulation, elevate the legs, and apply topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and itching can help treat this condition.
Neurodermatitis, also known as lichen simplex chronicus, is a type of eczema due to repetitive scratching or rubbing of the skin. It leads to thick, scaly, and itchy patches on the skin, which can appear on any part of the body. Neurodermatitis is more common in adults, and stress, anxiety, or other psychological factors may trigger it. To treat neurodermatitis, resist scratching or rubbing the affected skin, use moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated, and apply topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and itching. In severe cases, a doctor from Mid City Hospital may prescribe oral antihistamines or sedatives to help relieve itching and promote sleep.
8. Autoimmune Eczematous Dermatitis
Autoimmune eczematous dermatitis, also known as eczema herpetic or Kaposi varicelliform eruption, a rare type of eczema, occurs due to a viral infection. It is characterized by red, itchy, and painful patches on the skin, which can develop into blisters or ulcers. Autoimmune eczematous dermatitis is more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplants. The most common virus that causes autoimmune eczematous dermatitis is the herpes simplex virus, which is the same virus that causes cold sores. Treatment for autoimmune eczematous dermatitis includes using antiviral medications, such as acyclovir or valacyclovir, to treat the viral infection, and applying topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and itching.
Eczema is a common and chronic skin condition that can cause significant discomfort and embarrassment for those affected. The eight types of eczema in this article are atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, nummular eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, neurodermatitis, and autoimmune eczematous dermatitis. Each type of eczema has unique symptoms and causes, and treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition. It’s better to visit a professional if you are suffering from eczema.