Your breathing may stop during your sleep, and sleep apnea can be divided into two types: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Central Sleep Apnea (CSA).
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is usually caused by the relaxation of muscles. As the muscles in the throat relax, your airway will be narrowed or your nose can be stuffy and your breath can be cut off. Hypoxia can make you micro-awakened and then continue to breathe and it can be a cycle.
There are two main factors that can cause Central Sleep Apnea (CSA). One is that cerebrovascular disease affects the respiratory center and the other factor is the impaired microcirculatory function due to a long period of obstruction. Sleep apnea can be harmful to your organs with low oxygen at night. It is a long-term problem that should be treated promptly.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has the symptom of snoring, apnea, and daytime sleepiness.
It can cause chronic intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, sympathetic nervous system activation, disruption of sleep architecture, and high negative thoracic pressure, which can lead to multi-system damage.
- Snoring with recurrent apnea, awaking, or hypoventilation; dry mouth and headache in the morning
- Daytime sleepiness, drowsiness, frequent nocturia at night
- Psychiatric symptoms such as poor concentration, memory loss, irritability, anxiety or depression
- OSAHS patients can have a multi-system failure
- Cardiovascular system: elevated blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, and even sudden cardiac death
- Endocrine system: insulin resistance, glucose metabolism abnormalities, metabolic syndrome, etc.
- Respiratory system: respiratory failure, aggravate asthma, intractable chronic cough, pulmonary hypertension, and patients may suffer from chest discomfort and suffocation
- Genitourinary system: frequent nocturia, decreased libido in adults, etc;
- Digestive system: acid reflux, impaired liver function, etc.
- Neurological system: Decreased attention and cognition in children, and anxiety and depression in adults.
You need to be alerted when you have snoring during sleep and it is accompanied by sleep apnea, please get medical help as soon as possible. CPAP machines are the most effective treatment for sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure.
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA)
The central respiratory nerve has been damaged by stroke and trauma, so it cannot deliver the right instruction for breathing, resulting in a disorder of sleep breathing. And sleep apnea can occur during your night’s sleep. Your sleep apnea may indicate a problem with your brain’s signals as your brain temporarily “forgets” to tell your muscles to work.
If you have central sleep apnea, your brainstem cannot effectively send the message to muscles, which can lead to central sleep apnea (CSA).
- Short sleeping time; shallow sleep; may feel hard to breathe when awaking; lack of oxygen can cause you to wake up frequently throughout the night and lead to insomnia
- Daytime sleepiness, difficulty focusing on work, or a headache when waking
- Central sleep apnea caused by Parkinson’s disease or other neurological disorders has other symptoms such as difficulty in swallowing, changes in speech patterns, and voices.
Generally, medication is the preferred method. Medications can help control congestive heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, and other cardiac and neurological disorders. Sleep supplemental oxygen and air pressure regulation are also effective treatments for many patients with central sleep apnea.
It can help control congestive heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, and other heart or neurological disorders.
But you may need to stop using opioids if they cause sleep apnea. Your doctor may prescribe other medications to help you breathe well.
- CPAP Therapy (Continuous Positive Pressure)
CPAP provides you with continuous pressure during your sleep. CPAP machines provide you with pressurized air throughout the night when you wear a CPAP mask. CPAP can effectively treat people with obstructive sleep apnea and it can also benefit patients with central sleep apnea.
- BPAP Treatment (Bi-level Positive Pressure)
This treatment regulates air pressure to a higher level during inspiration and provides a smaller pressure when you exhale. Bi-level positive pressure ventilation also uses a mouth and nose mask.
- ASV Therapy (Adaptive Servoventilation)
ASV can monitor your breathing during your sleep. And it has an advanced system that can duplicate your breathing pattern, which can help you prevent sleep apnea.