The progress and emergence of new programs and services, as well as the expansion of encrypted communications, make it difficult for visitors to navigate through a security company. Virtual private networks (VPNs) are a type of encrypted communication service that is becoming increasingly popular as a means of circumventing censorship and getting access to geographically restricted content.

In the academic world  VPN is also one of the popular subjects that many researchers wrote about it. You can find about 1800 articles written as a result of  Virtual Private network researches by using the  Science Direct Search Engine

1. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) Research Paper

VPNs have a variety of purposes and forms, but the focus of this paper is on business applications rather than end-user applications because they are the most relevant to our industry.

Because of advancements in information and communication technology, the globe has shrunk to a small hamlet. Especially with the growing rise of the internet, which is quickly becoming a medium for many internationally competitive firms to do business. E-commerce is the most recent craze, and it necessitates a safe and cost-effective link to a company’s numerous resources, such as ERP systems and apps. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have become popular and useful due to their ability to enable cost-effective and secure connections across a public network such as the internet. Which allows for remote access. It can benefit any enterprise or even a regular user because it eliminates the need for leased dedicated circuits from an SP, which can be restricted and expensive.

VPNs have a wide range of applications and kinds, however, this article focuses mostly on business applications rather than end-users because they are the most beneficial to our specialty.

2. VPN: Overview and Security Risks    

In this paper, the researcher gives us the security risk of VPN. As a summary of the paper;

By generating a private network from our public internet connection, virtual private networks (VPNs) provide privacy and online protection while using the internet. VPNs mask our IP addresses, making it impossible to track our online activities. Initially, VPNs were exclusively used by large multinational companies that could afford them to securely and secretly transmit documents between offices located throughout the world. By 2020, more than a quarter of the world’s population will have used a VPN to secretly browse the internet. This article provides an overview of VPN technology, including how it works, different varieties, VPN Protocols, a comparison of free and premium VPN services, and VPN security concerns.

3. Common Vulnerabilities Exposed in VPN

This paper is about the vulnerabilities of VPN technology. Shortly it describes the issue as shared below;

Internet traffic has soared by up to 90% during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Almost every company has started a work-from-home culture. VPN is the technology used to get access to an organization’s intranet. Infrastructure administrators installed/updated VPN with the most recent versions, as well as security routines, in order to get access to the Intranet. Organizational contingencies, on the other hand, are outside their scope. Virtual private network (VPN) security is becoming a major concern for practically every company. The truth is that no one claims to have a fully functional security system installed in their infrastructure. The most recent vulnerabilities have been identified and indexed in relation to VPN hardware, software, and services.

4. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

This paper is on the concept of virtual private networks. It also demonstrates how to construct a tunnel using GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation). A virtual private network (VPN) allows private networks to be built over the Internet while also enabling IP and non-TCP/IP protocols to be tunneled. VPNs are used on a daily basis to link far-flung people and networks utilizing public media such as the Internet rather than more expensive, long-term solutions. VPNs are actually rather simple to grasp. A VPN connects a LAN to a wide-area network (WAN), with the WAN sometimes simulating a LAN connection. Simply, your computer on one LAN connects to a separate, remote LAN and gains remote access to its resources.VPN effectively makes your local host part of the distant network by utilizing the WAN link that links you to the remote LAN. Because of the VPN, your host will appear to be local on the distant network. This implies we have access to the distant LAN’s resources, and it’s a very secure connection. For packet authentication, the AH protocol utilizes a one-way hash to authenticate the content and IP header of a packet. The following is how it works: The transmitter creates a one-way hash that is then repeated by the receiver. The packet will not be confirmed and will be discarded if it has been changed in any way since the hash value no longer matches. As a result, IPsec entrusts authentication to AH.

How Do Research Papers Define VPN?

When it comes to virtual private networks (VPNs), there has been a noticeable shift in their use over the last decade or so. While VPNs were formerly only utilized by large corporations and government agencies, most people found them to be a mystery or an unnecessary expenditure, now we see VPNs being used and discussed on a far larger scale. VPNs are being used by a growing number of people, from small businesses to individuals, to protect their data and assure privacy. Virtual private networks (VPNs) are a cost-effective and efficient way to securely communicate private information across the public network infrastructure.

You may find   different answers to “What is VPN” question on research papers but generally, they define the VPN as;

A VPN is a virtual network that can offer a secure communications channel for data and other information exchanged between two endpoints. It is constructed on top of existing physical networks.